Have you ever encountered an odor that you thought might have been from an illicit substance? It’s true that many drugs have distinctive odors: from marijuana’s pungent earthy smell to methamphetamine which can smell like ammonia, rotten eggs, or even urine. If you have experienced these kinds of suspicious smells while walking past your teenager’s bedroom or on the clothing of your partner you may feel alarmed. But before you confront them about it, looking for signs and doing some research is strongly recommended. In this article, we will be discussing not only what heroin smells like, but what other things the “heroin smell” can tell you.
Understanding HeroinHeroin is both an illicit substance and highly addictive narcotic; but it wasn’t always that way. Heroin: known by its scientific name as diacetylmorphine, was first synthesized by the Bayer company in 1898 as a painkiller and cough suppressant. When heroin was first released, it was touted as a “less addictive” alternative to morphine. As time went by however the rate of heroin dependency increased. After heroin addiction skyrocketed in the US, new laws emerged that ended the substances use for medical purposes but by then the damage had been done. The street demand for the substance in the early 20th century shifted to production to illicit manufacturers and the rest is history. As a painkiller, heroin targets the nervous system by blocking pain receptors and effectively numbing the body. This is similar to how modern prescription painkillers work. Because heroin is highly psychoactive, many drug users prefer heroin’s euphoric effects to popping pills. Users of heroin have different methods of achieving their high. For example, when heroin is finely refined, it can be snorted. Other time people will smoke or inject it.
Heroin: Signs and Side-EffectsPeople often look for signs of heroin injection–things like spoons, lighters, or tread marks on the arms, but this only one form of heroin use. If you believe a loved one is using heroin, look for other–less obvious signs. Other examples and evidence of drug use include pipes and straws which can carry a residue that smells of vinegar. Here are some other signs and effects to beware of that may indicate your friend of family member is a heroin user:
- Respiratory depression or labored breathing
- Slowed heart rate
- Dry mouth
- Rapid weight loss
- Constant itching
- Nausea and frequent vomiting
- Flushed skin
- They are often tired–slipping in and out of lucidity
- Sleeps excessively
- Mood swings
- Appears Anxious often
- Has weak concentration
- Has difficulty carrying on a conversation
- Losing consciousness randomly
- Has declined in personal hygiene (bathing, grooming, wearing clean clothes, etc.)
- Dizziness and disorientation when walking or doing activities
Does Heroin Have a Smell?Heroin, unlike some other drugs, can be difficult to detect due to its tendency to not smell like anything. In some cases, when heroin does have a smell, it is said to resemble vinegar. The reason for this lies in how it is processed. Heroin is extracted from morphine. For it to become heroin, it must be boiled in acetic anhydride, a chemical that gives it a distinctive vinegar smell. In heroin that is well processed, the additive smell has been washed away. In cheaper heroin, such as black tar heroin, even more chemical additives remain. Black tar heroin, depending on how it is made, is reported to smell pungently of vinegar and can also be described as smelling burnt. Depending on what additives are used, heroin can take on other smells resembling urine, cat litter, and various kinds of medicine.2
Factors That Change the Heroine SmellAs previously mentioned, heroin is processed in different ways. Each process it undergoes can drastically change its smell as well as its physical appearance: giving It a black, brown, or white color while appearing in the form of either a powder–or a dark sticky substance The way heroin smells, is also due to what chemical additives and fillers are used. Here are some examples of commonly used additives and processes that give heroin its distinctive smells and colors and textures.
- During processing, several chemical additives may be used which can alter the appearance and smell of heroin including: ammonia, hydrochloric acid, chloroform calcium oxide and acetic anhydride.
- Being laced with other substances (e.g., fentanyl, methamphetamines, local anesthetics) can increase its potency while also altering its appearance and smell.
- Heroin is often cut with caffeine, painkillers (Tylenol), quinine, vitamin B-12, rodent poison and starch.5
- When in a white powder form, heroin can also be cut with detergent, sugar baking soda baby powder and powdered milk.